- You should leave figures in the manuscript file during the initial round(s) of peer-review, but also upload high-quality figures in PNG format as supplementary files. You will not be able to upload a JPG, .docx, PDF, .gif, .pptx, etc. file to be used as a figure. After acceptance (during copyediting) all figures will be removed from the manuscript and we will only use the images/captions uploaded to the system. Please ensure all figures intended to be published are uploaded in the system: On the Summary tab for your article, in the top Submission section, upload a supplementary file and select Figure as the file type.
- Figures should not have any transparent sections; our system will render them incorrectly. Extremely large images (ie, 5000+ pixels in either direction) will also render incorrectly.
- The maximum file size is 5MB and the maximum dimension is 1200 x 1200 pixels.
- If you need help to resize an image, please read How to resize an image and convert to PNG format ?
- For manuscripts discussing Web-based or mobile interventions we usually require 1-2 screenshots of the intervention as figure. Also, upload an "illustrative" figure or photo to be used for our homepage and the table-of-contents (we call this a "TOC image", see below), but make sure this is uploaded into the correct category (not Figures, see below).
- Each figure must have a caption which can be entered into the "Caption" field in the figure’s metadata. Use sentence case for the caption (as opposed to title case) with a period at the end.
- Captions should be succinct. Lengthy explanations should be moved to the body of the manuscript. On the other hand, each figure should be designed so that it can be easily understood by the reader without consulting the main body of the manuscript.
- Please do not include figure numbers and captions as part of the image files. If they are, authors will be asked to remove the caption from the image file and upload a new image file as supplementary file.
- Figure captions in the “caption” field should not include figure label/numbers, like Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. These labels will be added automatically by our script during typesetting. If you add "Figure 1" to the caption, then this will result in a duplicate label ("Figure 1. Figure 1...").
Use of Color
Color figures are permitted and encouraged. However, authors should be advised that the use of color alone to code different categories of data (eg, red vs blue) is problematic as some readers may print out a b/w copy, so we would prefer a different symbol or the use of different shades, and a legend providing sample symbols/colors. Please avoid including statements in the captions such as, "the green line shows x, the blue line shows y," as it may be unclear what line/symbol belongs to which category in a b/w printout. This may be avoided by (in addition to using different color)
- using different symbols for data points belonging to different categories (circle, diamond, square)
- using different line types (dotted vs continuous) for different categories
- a legend with sample symbols/sample color (so that even in a b/w printout it can be deduced which shade of grey belongs to what color)
- annotating lines/datapoints directly within the chart
Mentioning figures in the body of the text
All figures must be mentioned in the text or else our system will not insert the figure uploaded into the database into the final manuscript. It takes a lot of time and resources for typesetters to do this manually, so please ensure each figure is mentioned as "Figure x". Expressions like, "as the following figure shows," or "as shown in the figure above," must be replaced with "as Figure x shows." In addition, the figures may be moved around during typesetting to optimize layout, so please do not allude to the figure's location in the text (ie, "as shown in the figure in the next paragraph”), and instead use a neutral statement that does not mention a location in the text.
When referring to multiple Tables, Figures, or Textboxes, use either a hyphen to show a range (ie, Figures 1-4) or the word "and" (Figures 1 and 2). Other words (ie, "Figures 1 through 4") or punctuation (ie, Figures 1–4 [endash]), will not be picked up by our scripts.
Do not use Figure 1a, 1b, etc, for separate figures. It is okay if one figure is logically split up into parts (because each one is very small). In this case, ensure only ONE figure file with all the figure parts included is provided (ie, figure parts merged into one figure). If figure parts are going to remain as separate figure files, they must be renumbered (Fig 1, 2, 3, etc).
Figure types that are not permitted
Multimedia Appendices (MAs) are published at the end of a paper.
Examples of what could be uploaded as an MA include questionnaires, datasets, videos or screencasts, a Powerpoint file, tables too long for the body of the manuscript, PDF files showing multiple screenshots (in this particular case, please also use 1-2 screenshots as figures in the paper), files containing the source code of a computer program, or informed consent documents.
For protocols/proposals intended for JMIR Reseach Protocols, authors should upload review reports from the funding agencies, if available, to take advantage of the discount offered for funded proposals/protocols (see When is a grant proposal or protocol eligible for the 50% discount on the APF?)
We also require the CONSORT-EHEALTH checklist for randomized trials and prefer to publish it as MA (see CONSORT-EHEALTH for Randomized Controlled Trials).
Our policy is that questionnaires and other important tools constructed or used in the research must be uploaded and made available as a Multimedia Appendix, unless a third party owns the copyright and does not make the tool available under a Creative Commons Attribution license. See What is your policy regarding access to critical research tools and instruments (e.g. questionnaires)?
The acceptable file extensions for Multimedia Appendix are .png, .doc, .docx, .xls, .xlsx, .ppt, .pptx, .pdf, .txt, .mov, .mp4, .avi, .zip, .rar, .7z.
If you upload any image, you can upload a PNG file type with a maximum file size of 5MB. There is no restriction on the width and height of the image.
If you upload any movie, you can upload a .mov, .mp4 and .avi with the maximum file size of 200MB.
Word documents are accepted as a file; however, our system will automatically convert them to PDF files. Sometimes if a Word file with a table is automatically converted to a PDF by our system, parts get cut off due to the margins. We recommend converting the Word file to a PDF before uploading so you can ensure the file appears as intended.
If you upload any other acceptable format, the maximum file size is 255MB.
One appendix per file, one file per appendix. If authors zipped (compressed, packed) multiple files together, they usually need to be unpacked, reuploaded as separate supplementary files, and referred to as separate Multimedia Appendices (exceptions may exist, eg, if there are 10 separate files all containing computer code they may be left packed and referred to as one Multimedia Appendix)
Captions of MAs are generated from what is entered in the “caption” field in the database for the file. You can edit this caption at any time. Please do not include the MA label/number in the caption, like Multimedia Appendix 1 or Supplementary file 2, etc. These labels will be added automatically by our script during typesetting. If you add "Supplementary file 1" to the caption, then this will result in a duplicate label ("Multimedia appendix 1. Supplementary file 1...").
In addition, Multimedia appendices should be mentioned in sequential order in the main manuscript.
- How to add/upload a Multimedia Appendix?
- My paper has some material that is more appropriate for a Multimedia Appendix than the main manuscript. How do I make sure the sources are included in RefCheck?
Additional material is NOT published.
We recommend to upload a tracked-changes version, and also the responses to the reviewers, as an additional file. Also, upload potentially overlapping material/publications submitted or published in other journals (make sure to outline in your notification to the editor how this paper is different, and why "salami-slicing" into multiple publications is justifiable).
CONSORT/CONSORT-EHEALTH (for RCTs only), PRISMA (systematic reviews) and other reporting checklists should also be supplied, if available. (See also What kind of reporting guidelines should I follow for my article?).
Table-of-contents (TOC) image
A TOC image does not have to be uploaded on initial submission, but after the initial peer-review or acceptance we will require a "cover" image which we can publish in the Table of Contents and our homepage.
Do not upload a JPG, .docx, PDF, .gif, .pptx, etc. file as a TOC image. Only PNG is permitted.
The maximum file size is 5MB.
The minimum dimension is 300 x 225 pixels.
The maximum dimension is 1200 x 900 pixels. If you need help to resize an image, please read How to resize an image and convert to PNG format?
Sourcing a TOC image
Description: A description is not mandatory. If the TOC image uses a screenshot of an app, computer program, or website, please describe it.
Source: Name of website (eg, “Pexels” or “Wikimedia Commons”) or “Image created by the authors” if the author took the photo.
Copyright: Name of person who took the photo (eg, “Bill Smith” or “The Authors”)
Source Image URL (if applicable): If sourced from a website, please link to the page with the image, not just the homepage of the website because our staff need to be able to confirm the copyright information. For example, if this photo was purchased from iStock, a link to the iStock homepage will not suffice and the authors will be asked during proofreading to provide the link to the exact photo.
License: If the authors created the image, select “CC-BY” if you wish to give it the same license as your article and figures. If you instead want more protection on your image rights, select “Licensed by JMIR” which indicates you gave us, and us only, permission to use this photo. Only if the author has purchased the photo, select “Licensed by the authors”. If this option is selected, authors will need to upload a proof of purchase, such as a receipt or an email confirmation, to your supplementary files not for publication.
License to Publish
After your manuscript is accepted, please sign and upload the License to Publish, see Where can I find the publication forms for authors and where do I submit them?
- Who should be listed as author and sign the publication form? (authorship criteria)
- Do all co-authors need to sign the Publication Form?