In-text citations (manuscript body)
- In-text references are cited in square brackets (eg, )
- Multiple citations are separated by a comma, without a space (eg, [1,2,3])
- Inclusive citations are separated by a hyphen (eg, [1-3])
- Citations should appear in numerical order in the manuscript throughout the manuscript
The references at the end of the manuscript need to be numbered sequentially using MS Word's numbered list function. This helps eliminate extra line breaks which will register as a separate reference in our system.
If a reference has to be added or removed during copyediting (resulting in in-text citations that are out of order), our system will renumber these automatically during XML conversion. For example, if  is cited before , or if a citation is removed from the text during copyediting, our system will renumber and omit references as necessary.
Reference management system (ie, Endnote and Mendeley)
Our journals follow the AMA Manual of Style. Any AMA journal style (eg, JAMA) may be used in reference management systems. More importantly, use a bibliographic reference management system which allows you to output the PMID (Pubmed ID) after each journal reference (see below for information on database identifiers).
JMIR uses a reference software (RefCheck) to check for references in online databases and correct them. Minor errors in references (such as errors in authors, titles, etc) will be automatically corrected using information from other databases.
PubMed Identifier (PMID)
For best results, simply add the PubMed Identifier (PMID) behind each reference without brackets manually or with a reference management system that allows this (eg, PMID:12345). Alternatively, a Medline link can be appended (the link contains the PMID as well).
Use a reference management system which allows you to output the PMID (PubMed Identifier) after each journal reference. The PMID allows the RefCheck system to pull references from various databases and automatically correct any formatting errors.
Correct format of identifiers in Word document:
- "PMID:1234567" or "PMID: 1234567"
- Medline link contains the PMID (ie, http://pubmed.gov/1234567 or http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1234567). There are some hyperlinks to a PubMed abstract which contain something like “cmd=Search” which will not result in a successful search.
If a reference contains a PMID or Medline link but a red minus is displayed, check that they are correct and in the correct format. You can also manually search PubMed for the PMID, enter it in the lookup field, and press save.
DOIs should be found in PubMed or CrossRef. If they are not recognized, have the author confirm that the DOI is correct or search at http://crossref.org/. It is possible that the DOI is correct but is not indexed in the databases we search.
For books, add the ISBN number after the reference, eg, ISBN:12342345X.
Removal of field codes
If authors used a reference management system (like Endnote), in-text references (and the bibliography) may appear as field codes (can be recognized by a grey background). In this case, make sure to remove all field codes and hidden links from the manuscript. To do so, select all text (Ctrl+A or Cmd+A), then press Ctrl+Shift+F9 or Cmd+6 to unlink all fields. Your in-text citations and bibliography become regular text, without field codes or any hidden links. Save under a new file name and upload this as your final manuscript version.
References “In Press”
Submitted or under peer-review
- These do not belong in the references section.
- These must be deleted unless they have been accepted in the time since submission (in which case you must cite them as "in press").
- Cited as “in press”
- Make sure to update references previously cited as "in press" or "forthcoming" if they are published i the time after submission before copyediting (add the PMID or DOI if known).
- For citing JMIR papers that are in press, see As author, how can I cite my accepted but not yet published article (in press/forthcoming JMIR article)
- If you did not cite a paper in-press before copyediting, copyeditors can follow add a new reference during copyediting. It is not desirable to have a statement such as, "As the companion paper in this issue of the journal shows..." without citing it properly.
A reference can be formatted as a journal reference, web reference, book or book chapter, or conference proceeding in our reference management system, RefCheck.
Notes on web references
- All Webpages and URLs cited in the manuscript should be added as a reference
- Government reports, Pew Internet Research reports, and other "gray" publications such as dissertations are often freely available on the Web, and we prefer that you add a URL linking directly to the PDF
- Software is cited as a web reference only if it is the subject of the paper. If the software is just mentioned in passing, it can be referred to in the Methods section
- If possible, reference is to the manufacturer’s URL or, even better, a product description/manual/feature sheet on the developers website.
- Endnote style for JMIR journals: This is not ideal as it is missing the PMID (if you have a better journal style, let us know)
- Official Zotero style (untested)
- Mendeley style hacked by Robin Kok (untested)